Protesters have poured onto the streets of Barcelona today as Spain's Prime Minister moved to impose direct rule over Catalonia and threatened to arrest the region's president if he declares independence.
Mariano Rajoy wants to sack the Catalan government and call an election within six months in a bid to thwart a drive by the autonomous region to break away.
Rajoy said his government had taken the unprecedented decision to restore the law, ensure regional institutions were neutral and guarantee public services.
The measures must now be approved by Spain's upper house, the Senate, where a vote is scheduled for October 27.
Rajoy's conservative Popular Party holds a majority in the Senate, and the measures also enjoy the support of the main opposition Socialists and centrist Ciudadanos party.
If the Senate greenlights the proposals, the Catalan parliament will continue to operate as normal until it is dissolved, but it will be unable to elect a new government chief to replace Puigdemont or vote on any laws that go against Spain's constitution and its statute as a semi-autonomous region.