Nine missiles fired on Syria in Hama and Aleppo were fired from British and US bases in Jordan, Syrian media has claimed.
The Syrian army has described the strikes as new "aggression" by its enemies, state television said.
But sources in the MOD say there was no involvement in the strikes, which saw missiles strike targets in Aleppo and Homs.
The claim that Britain and the US are behind the attack was made in the Syrian Teshreen newspaper, which is closely linked to the regime of president Bashar al-Assad.
Israel has also been blamed for the air attack in conflicting reports.